AGING TRIGGERS A METABOLIC AND HORMONAL IMBALANCE

After more than half a century of research in the field of immunology and endocrinology, knowledge of the impact of hormonal imbalance on aging has increased drastically.

Once the individual’s growth and maturation process is complete, a slow and progressive decline of the body begins, which is accentuated from the end of the 30s onwards.

THE HORMONAL THEORY OF AGING

Some of our hormones begin to decline early, in our 20s, such as DHEA, while others will decline later. At the age of 40, many of them show plasma levels significantly lower than those of the same person at the age of 20. The hormonal theory of aging is based on these phenomena.

This lack of hormones is linked to multiple signs, symptoms, and diseases related to aging, such as heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, or insomnia.

HORMONE

ESTRADIOL

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Fatigue
  • Depression, low libido
  • Memory impairment
  • Hot flushes
  • Night sweats
  • Uterine or vaginal prolapse
  • Vaginal dryness, pain with sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), susceptibility to urinary tract infections, vaginitis, incontinence, etc.
  • Joint pain
  • Deep wrinkles
  • Dry mucous membranes
  • Dry skin
  • Chest drop
  • Skin paleness

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Infertility
  • Premature aging
  • Osteopenia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Alzheimer’s disease

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Jennifer L. Gordon, PhD1; David R. Rubinow, MD2; Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul, PhD2; et al. Efficacy of Transdermal Estradiol and Micronized Progesterone in the Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in the Menopause Transition. A Randomized Clinical Trial.
  • 2. Gastlehner et al. Hormone Therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventives Task Force. JAMA. 2017;318(22):2234-49.
  • 3. Roelfsema F et al. Differential effects of estradiol and progesterone on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. 2018 July;2(7):794-805.

HORMONE

TESTOSTERONE IN MEN

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Headaches
  • Buzzing in ears
  • Tachycardia, palpitations, intolerance to exercise
  • Low muscle mass and strength
  • Nervous disorders
  • Constipation
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Lack of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, lower sperm volume, decreased sperm count.
  • Excessive anxiety, fears, irritability
  • Loss of assertiveness, authority and self-confidence.
  • Poor memory
  • Excessive sensitivity to problems, excessive preoccupations
  • Low stress tolerance
  • Aged appearance
  • Abdominal obesity
  • Joint pain
  • Dry skin
  • Pallor
  • Dry eyes
  • Loss of hair on pubis and legs

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Cardiovascular disease (heart attack, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, thrombosis).
  • Infertility
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Depression
  • Alzheimer
  • Osteoporosis
  • Poor wound healing

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Morgentaler A. The Testosterone Trials: What the Results Mean for Healthcare Providers and for Science. Curr Sex Health Rep. Current Sexual Health Reports; 2017 Oct 31;9(4):1–6.
  • 2. PhD RCR, MD FW, MD HMB, MD HP, MD EJHM, MD MM, et al. Quality of Life and Sexual Function Benefits of Long-Term Testosterone Treatment: Longitudinal Results From the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME). J Sex Med. Elsevier Inc; 2017 Aug 2;14(9):1–12.

HORMONE

TESTOSTERONE IN WOMEN

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Depressive symptoms, anxiety, fears, irritability
  • Loss of assertiveness, authority and self-confidence.
  • Poor memory
  • Excessive sensitivity to problems, excessive preoccupations
  • Low stress tolerance
  • Aged appearance
  • Abdominal obesity
  • Low muscle mass
  • Permanent fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Dry skin
  • Loss of libido, sensitivity and anorgasmia
  • Cellulite
  • Varicose veins

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Joint problems
  • Osteoporosis

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Glaser, R., & Dimitrakakis, C. (2013). Testosterone therapy in women: myths and misconceptions. Maturitas, 74(3), 230–234.
  • 2. Corona G, Rastrelli G, Maggi M. Diagnosis and treatment of late onset hypogonadism: systematic review and meta- analysis of TRT outcomes. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;27:557-579.

HORMONE

DHEA

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Low resistance to noise and stress
  • Low sexual desire
  • Low sexual satisfaction or less powerful erections
  • Eyes and dry skin
  • Poor muscle development

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Diabetes
  • Alzheimer
  • Depression

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Adamkiewicz M, Zgliczyn ́ ski S, Słowin ́ ska-Srzednicka J, Jeske W, Rabijewski M, Pietrzyk E, et al. The relationship between plasma androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and testosterone), insulin, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in men with coronary arterio- sclerosis. Aging Male 1998;1:270–9.
  • 2. Morales AJ, Nolan JJ, Nelson JC, Yen SSC. Effects of replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women of advancing age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:1360–7.

HORMONE

PROGESTERONE

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Muscular and nervous tension
  • Irritability, aggressiveness
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Increased sensitivity to pain
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Breast tenderness
  • Swollen breasts
  • Migraines associated with menstruation

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Breast cysts
  • Breast cancer
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Myomas
  • Infertility
  • Preeclampsia and risk of miscarriage

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Mirkin S. Evidence on the use of progesterone in menopausal hormone therapy. Climacteric. 2018 Aug;21(4):346-354.
  • 2. Harman SM et al. Is the estrogen controversy over? Deconstructing the Women´s Health Initiative study: a critical evaluation of the evidence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005 Jun; 1052:43-56.

HORMONE

MELATONIN

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

Symptoms suggestive of Melatonin deficiency usually come from poor rest, excessive muscle tension, circadian rhythm disturbances and increased free radical damage:

  • Agitation and restless legs during sleep
  • Nocturnal muscle tension
  • Aged appearance
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain and intestinal spasms
  • Restless, shallow sleep with distressing thoughts
  • Ease of awakening at night
  • Difficulty falling asleep and falling back to sleep after early awakening
  • Poor daydreams
  • Jet-lag marked when changing time zone
  • Phase delay (going to bed and getting up late)
  • Anxiety, lack of serenity, inner peace, especially at night.
  • Depression, especially seasonal
  • Excessively emotional, irritable

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Jet-lag
  • Hypertension
  • Heart disease
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Increased susceptibility to infections
  • Breast and prostate cancer
  • Alzheimer
  • Parkinson

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Carretero M, Escames G, López LC, Venegas C, Dayoub JC, García L, Acuña-Castroviejo D. Long-term melatonin administration protects brain mitochondria from aging. J Pineal Res 2009; 47:192-200. PMDI: 19573039.
  • 2. Acuña-Castroviejo D, López LC, Escames G, López A, García JA. Melatonin-mitochondria interplay in health and disease. Curr Topic Med Chem 2011; 11:221-240. PMDI: 21244359.

HORMONE

THYROID HORMONES

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Weakness
  • Cold
  • Feeling tired, fatigued
  • Thin and dry skin
  • Yellowing of palms and plants
  • Fine hair
  • Thin nails
  • Weight gain
  • Increased body fat
  • Loss of energy and motivation
  • Cognitive impairment, memory impairment, slowed thinking and reactions
  • Poor concentration
  • Poor perception of quality of life and depression
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Constipation
  • Predisposition to upper respiratory tract infections
  • Feeling inflamed, swollen
  • Sleep apnea
  • Drowsiness
  • Difficulty getting up in the morning
  • Excessive caffeine consumption
  • Headache
  • Buzzing in ears
  • Morning hoarseness
  • Joint stiffness in the morning
  • Night cramps
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Infertility
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Depression
  • Memory loss
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Respiratory infections

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Jabbar A, Pingitore A, Pearce SHS, et al. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016;14:1–17.
  • 2. “Thyroid Function and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study”. ENDO 2016; April 3, 2016; Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract OR33-2.

HORMONE

SOMATOMEDIN (IGF-1)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

  • Poor quality of life
  • Lack of inner peace
  • Chronic anxiety
  • Tendency to depression
  • Lack of self-esteem and self-confidence
  • Lack of concentration
  • Worsening of social status
  • Poor stress tolerance
  • Thin skin
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Obesity
  • Lack of energy, extreme tiredness with little activity
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Light sleep
  • Excessive need for sleep

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypercholesterolemia, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Possibly Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Denti L, Annoni V, Cattadori E, Salvagnini MA, Visioli S, Merli MF, Corradi F,
    Ceresini G, Valenti G, Hoffman AR, Ceda GP. Insulin-like growth factor 1 as a
    predictor of ischemic stroke outcome in the elderly. Am J Med. 2004 Sep
    1;117(5):312-7. PubMed PMID: 15336580.
  • 22. Westwood AJ, Beiser A, Decarli C, Harris TB, Chen TC, He XM, Roubenoff R,
    Pikula A, Au R, Braverman LE, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, Seshadri S. Insulin-like growth
    factor-1 and risk of Alzheimer dementia and brain atrophy. Neurology. 2014 May
    6;82(18):1613-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL. 0000000000000382. Epub 2014 Apr 4. PubMed PMID:
    24706014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4013812.

HORMONE

CORTISOL

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIT

In adrenal fatigue syndrome its levels are initially elevated and finally low in more advanced stages of the disease. Adrenal fatigue manifests itself with symptoms such as:

  • Tendency to gain weight and inability to lose it, especially around the waist.
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Infections that last longer than normal
  • Tendency to shake under pressure
  • Lower sex drive
  • Dizziness when rising from horizontal position
  • Inability to remember things
  • Lack of energy in the mornings and afternoons
  • Feeling better for a while after a meal
  • Feeling tired around 9-10 p.m. but resisting bedtime
  • Need for coffee and stimulants in the morning to get through the day
  • Need for salty, fatty, protein-rich products such as meat and cheese
  • Increased symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in women with more irregular periods (initial heavy bleeding, stopping and re-bleeding).
  • Back and neck pain for no apparent reason
  • Feeling better on vacation or stress-free
  • Difficulty getting up in the morning
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Allergies to food or inhalants
  • Lack of energy, lethargy
  • Doing daily chores is a major effort
  • Reduced ability to handle stress
  • Dry and thin skin
  • Low blood sugar
  • Low body temperature
  • Nervousness
  • Palpitations
  • Unexplained hair loss
  • Alternating diarrhea and constipation
  • Stomach alterations

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASES

Cortisol deficiency increases susceptibility to inflammatory diseases such as:

  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Infections
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases
  • Increased risk of death from serious conditions such as infections or traumatic injuries

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. Gadinger, M. C., Loerbroks, A. et al. Associations Between Job Strain and the Cortisol/DHEA-S Ratio Among Management and Nonmanagement Personnel. Psychosom Med. 2010;
  • 2. Chrousos, G. P. The role of stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome: neuro-endocrine and target tissue-related causes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000; 24 Suppl 2:S50-S55.

Hormone Replacement Therapy corrects all these imbalances produced by the aging process, providing the body with the vitality, well-being, and energy lost as a result of aging and acting directly on many of the causes of age-related diseases.

The replacement of these hormones at physiological levels (optimal levels, but within normal limits and not excessive) has been shown to help mitigate age-related changes.

Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy is one of the fundamental pillars on which the Neolife Follow-up Programs are based. After the check-up, the medical team will implement a plan of action that will include, if necessary, the replacement and/or control of certain hormone levels.

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