MAIN HORMONAL FUNCTIONS IN MEN

TESTOSTERONA

Testosterone is the main sex steroid hormone. It is produced in the Leydig cells of the testes by stimulation of luteinizing hormone (LH). 

ESTROGEN

Despite being a typically female hormone, it is also fundamental in men’s health. Estrogen in men is produced in the testicles and in small amounts in the cortex of the adrenal glands. The amounts produced in the male body are much smaller than in a woman’s. 

THYROID HORMONES

Thyroid hormones are produced in the thyroid and regulate the metabolic rate of all cells. Receptors for thyroid hormones exist in most tissues and therefore, affect the function of almost every organ and system, especially the heart, bones, and subcutaneous fat. 

MELATONIN

Melatonin is a molecule related to neuroendocrine physiology. It is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle, and is also a hormone that modulates the activity of the immune system.  

CORTISOL

Cortisol is produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands, as well as aldosterone, DHEA, and other hormones. It is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and glucose, and plays an important role in the immune system.  

DHEA (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE) 

DHEA is a weak androgen produced by the adrenal glands, which is sulfated in the liver and circulates in the blood in its sulfated form (DHEA-S). 

INSULIN

Insulin is the hormone secreted by the pancreas when glucose levels rise after eating and allows glucose to enter the cells (especially in the liver, brain, and muscles) to be used as energy. 

TESTOSTERONE

In women it is produced by conversion from DHEA in 75% and by its production in the ovaries in 25%.

Testosterone has a potent anabolic effect on muscle and bone tissue as well as on libido. It also affects mood and cognitive function.

Numerous studies confirm that, as in men, women also experience a decrease in testosterone levels with age, due to a decrease in DHEA production and an increase in anovulatory cycles throughout life.

Low testosterone levels are associated with decreased libido, low mood, increased body fat, decreased muscle mass and strength, decreased bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk, among others.

In addition, in women, testosterone contributes to the relief of menopausal symptoms and to the improvement of the skin, increasing collagen and elastin.

ESTROGENS

Estradiol in men is responsible for regulating the nervous system, stimulating metabolism, increasing calcium deposition in bone tissues, participating in sperm production processes and regulating the cardiovascular system by reducing bad cholesterol.

Low estradiol levels are associated with negative effects on the cardiovascular system, bones, sex life, skin smoothness, emotional well-being, sleep, cognitive ability, mood and immune system.

THYROID HORMONES

Its effects are to control body temperature and promote the metabolism of adipose tissue, which helps to lose fatty weight and lower cholesterol levels. They are cardio and neuroprotective.

Its low levels are related to uncontrolled weight gain, decay, chronic fatigue, depression, thinning and weak hair, dry skin, brittle nails, cold sensation…

MELATONIN

It is a key hormone in the regulation of mitochondrial function, for the production of ATP, which is the form of energy that the cell uses for all its functions. In addition, melatonin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.

Lack of melatonin leads to a loss of the ability to regulate circadian rhythms, causing problems in the quantity and quality of sleep and rest.

Its decrease causes oxidative and nitrosative stress, which will become more acute the greater the deficit of this hormone. This causes inflammation of the cells, weakening the immune system, thereby causing disease.

Moreover, as melatonin synchronizes the rhythms of brain neurotransmitters, its decrease directly affects cognitive abilities.

CORTISOL

Like insulin, it is a hormone that increases with age and bad lifestyle habits, causing problems in the medium and long term.

It is known as “the stress hormone”, since it is elevated in situations of acute physical and/or psychological stress, in response to the hyperstimulation of the adrenal glands in Hans Seyle’s phase 1 or alarm phase, inhibiting the immune system.

However, a situation of chronic stress produces a drop in this hormone and may reflect an adrenal fatigue syndrome.

DHEA

In women, it is the precursor of 75% of circulating testosterone. In addition, it has its own effects on arteries, bones and the immune system.

Plasma DHEA-S levels are a good biomarker of aging, decreasing by 10-20% per decade after the age of twenty.

An adequate level of DHEA promotes tissue reconstruction (by stimulating protein metabolism), helps to control stress (by counteracting the effect of cortisol) and has positive effects on cardiovascular, bone, immune, sexual, mood…

TESTOSTERONE

In women it is produced by conversion from DHEA in 75% and by its production in the ovaries in 25%.

Testosterone has a potent anabolic effect on muscle and bone tissue as well as on libido. It also affects mood and cognitive function.

Numerous studies confirm that, as in men, women also experience a decrease in testosterone levels with age, due to a decrease in DHEA production and an increase in anovulatory cycles throughout life.

Low testosterone levels are associated with decreased libido, low mood, increased body fat, decreased muscle mass and strength, decreased bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk, among others.

In addition, in women, testosterone contributes to the relief of menopausal symptoms and to the improvement of the skin, increasing collagen and elastin.

ESTROGENS

Estradiol in men is responsible for regulating the nervous system, stimulating metabolism, increasing calcium deposition in bone tissues, participating in sperm production processes and regulating the cardiovascular system by reducing bad cholesterol.

Low estradiol levels are associated with negative effects on the cardiovascular system, bones, sex life, skin smoothness, emotional well-being, sleep, cognitive ability, mood and immune system.

THYROID HORMONES

Its effects are to control body temperature and promote the metabolism of adipose tissue, which helps to lose fatty weight and lower cholesterol levels. They are cardio and neuroprotective.

Its low levels are related to uncontrolled weight gain, decay, chronic fatigue, depression, thinning and weak hair, dry skin, brittle nails, cold sensation…

MELATONIN

It is a key hormone in the regulation of mitochondrial function, for the production of ATP, which is the form of energy that the cell uses for all its functions. In addition, melatonin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.

Lack of melatonin leads to a loss of the ability to regulate circadian rhythms, causing problems in the quantity and quality of sleep and rest.

Its decrease causes oxidative and nitrosative stress, which will become more acute the greater the deficit of this hormone. This causes inflammation of the cells, weakening the immune system, thereby causing disease.

Moreover, as melatonin synchronizes the rhythms of brain neurotransmitters, its decrease directly affects cognitive abilities.

CORTISOL

Like insulin, it is a hormone that increases with age and bad lifestyle habits, causing problems in the medium and long term.

It is known as “the stress hormone”, since it is elevated in situations of acute physical and/or psychological stress, in response to the hyperstimulation of the adrenal glands in Hans Seyle’s phase 1 or alarm phase, inhibiting the immune system.

However, a situation of chronic stress produces a drop in this hormone and may reflect an adrenal fatigue syndrome.

DHEA

In women, it is the precursor of 75% of circulating testosterone. In addition, it has its own effects on arteries, bones and the immune system.

Plasma DHEA-S levels are a good biomarker of aging, decreasing by 10-20% per decade after the age of twenty.

An adequate level of DHEA promotes tissue reconstruction (by stimulating protein metabolism), helps to control stress (by counteracting the effect of cortisol) and has positive effects on cardiovascular, bone, immune, sexual, mood…